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M. J. EVERHART’S MARINE REPTILE REFERENCES:

MOSASAURS, PLESIOSAURS, TURTLES AND OTHER VERTEBRATE FAUNA

Copyright by Mike Everhart © 2001-2013

Updated 11/10/2013

NEW! ePapers: Scans of older paleontology papers on the Web  -  For other Cretaceous fossil references, go HERE

To look up other publications about vertebrate paleontology, go to John Damuth's Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates.

Ben Creisler's Plesiosaur Pronunciation Guide - An annotated listing of plesiosaur names - Moved to Oceans of Kansas 2012

Ben Creisler's Mosasaur Pronunciation Guide - An annotated listing of mosasaur names - Moved to Oceans of Kansas 2012


NOTE: I have copies of all of the references listed below in my library.   I am always interested in acquiring additional reference material.   Please contact me if you have a marine reptile article that I don't have. A special "Thank you!" to T. Lingham-Soliar for his contribution of mosasaur, plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reprints. Another big "Thank you!" to Earl Manning for his editorial assistance and contribution of many 1800s paleontology, mosasaur, plesiosaur, pteranodon, fish and bird papers, and to Dr. Robert Firestone for his expert translations of Goldfuss (1845) and von Huene (1910).

Adams, D.A. 1997. Trinacromerum bonneri, new species, last and fastest pliosaur of the Western Interior Seaway. Texas Journal of Science, 49(3):179-198.

Agassiz, L. 1849. [Sphenosaurus and Atlantochelys.] Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 4(8):169. <EM>

Almy, K.J. 1987. Thof’s dragon and the letters of Capt. Theophilus Turner, M.D., U.S. Army, Kansas History Magazine, 10(3):170-200.  (Letters exchanged between Turner and E.D. Cope - Background on the discovery of Elasmosaurus platyurus, Cope’s "head on the wrong end" plesiosaur)

Andrews, C.W. 1895. Note on a skeleton of a young plesiosaur from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough. Geological Magazine, Decade IV, 2:372): 241-243, 1 pl. <SS>

Andrews, C.W. 1896. On the structure of the plesiosaurian skull. Quarterly Journal Geological Society London. 246-253.

Andrews, C.W. 1897. On the structure of the skull of a pliosaur. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 53:177-185, pl. XII.

Andrews, C.W. 1910. A descriptive catalogue of the marine reptiles of the Oxford Clay - based on the Leeds collection in the BM (NH), London, part I. London: BM (NH).

Andrews, C.W. 1913.  A descriptive catalogue of the marine reptiles of the Oxford Clay. Based on the Leeds collection in the British Museum (Natural History), London. Part II.   4[quarto], London. xxiv + 206 pp., 73 figs., frontisp., 13 pls. (in part, C.M.)

Andrews, C.W. 1922. Description of a new plesiosaur from the Weald Clay of Berwick (Sussex). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London; 78(3): 285-298, pl. XIV-XV.

Anonymous [Marsh, O.C.]. 1872. On two new Ornithosaurians from Kansas. American Journal of Science, Series 3, 3(17):374-375.

Anonymous. 1880. Obituary for Professor B. F. Mudge, American Journal of Science 3:82.

Anonymous. 1881. Sketch of Edward D. Cope. Popular Science Monthly 19(1):110-113, with portrait.

Anonymous. 1888. A Cretaceous bird-track. American Naturalist, 22(253):55. (includes the original 1887 bird track article by Prof. F. H. Snow)

Anonymous. 1891. Professor [D. W.] Thompson on the systematic position of Hesperornis. Auk 8(3): 304-305.

Anonymous. 1899. Sketch of George M. Sternberg. Popular Science Monthly 41(1):116-121, with portrait.

Anonymous. 1934. The South Dakota plesiosaur skeleton. Science (n. s.) 80(suppl.)2084:12.

Arbour, V. M. and Currie, P.J.(2011. An istiodactylid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Hornby Island, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Arbour, V.M. and Currie, P.J. 2011. Corrigendum: an istiodactylid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Hornby Island, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 48:778.

Bailey, V. 1923. Maximilian's travels in the interior of North America; 1832 to 1834. Natural History 23(4):337-343.

Baird, D. 1967. Age of fossil birds from the Greensands of New Jersey. Auk 84(2): 260-262

Baird, D. 1978. Pneumatoarthrus Cope, 1870, not a dinosaur but a sea-turtle.  Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 129(4):71-81.

Baird, D. 1984. No ichthyosaurs in the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey... or Saskatchewan. The Mosasaur 2:129-133.

Baird, D. 1984. Evidence of giant protostegid sea-turtles in the Cretaceous of New Jersey. The Mosasaur 2:135-140.

Baird, D. 1986. Halisaurus and Prognathodon, Two uncommon mosasaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey, The Mosasaur, 3:37-45.

Baird, D. 1986. A skull fragment of the Cretaceous cheloniid turtle Osteopygis from Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, The Mosasaur, 3:47-52.

Baird, D. 1986. Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Severn Formation of Maryland, The Mosasaur, 3:63-85.

Baird, D. and G. R. Case, 1966. Rare marine reptiles from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Journal of Paleontology 40(5)1211-1215.

Baird, D. and P. M. Dalton, 1981. Pterosaur bones from the Upper Cretaceous of Delaware. Journal of Paleontology 1(1):67-71.

Baker, A. A. 1956.The swallowing of stones by animals. The Victorian Naturalist 73(6):82-95. <OW>

Bakker, R. T., 1986. The dinosaur heresies, William Morrow and Company, Inc., 482 pages. (see Chapter 21 on marine reptiles)

Bakker, R.T. 1993. Plesiosaur extinction cycles - Events that mark the beginning, middle and end of the Cretaceous. pp. 641-664, In Caldwell, W. G. E. and Kaufmann, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39.

Bakker, R.T. 1993. Jurassic sea monsters. Discover, 14(9):78-85.

Ballou, W.H., 1897. Strange creatures of the past: Gigantic saurians of the reptilian age. Century Magazine (n. s.) 55(1)15-23.

Ballou, W.H. 1898. The serpentlike sea saurians. Popular Science Monthly. 53:209-225, 2pls. (June issue)

Barck, A. 1992. Paleontology of the Glen Rose Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Hood County, Texas. Texas Journal of Science 44(1):3-24.

Bardack, D. 1962. A review of the fossil birds of Kansas . Kansas Ornithological Society Bulletin 13(2):9-15.

Bardack, D. 1968. Fossil vertebrates from the marine Cretaceous of Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 5:145-153.

Bardet, N. 2012. The Mosasaur collections of the Museum national d’histoire naturelle of Paris. Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(1):35-53.

Bardet, N. Cappetta, H., Suberbiola, X. P., Mouty, M., Al Maleh, A. K., Khrata, O., and Gannoum, N. 2000. The marine vertebrate faunas of the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Syria. Geological Magazine 137(3):269-290.

Bardet, N. J., C. Corral and X. P. Suberbiola. 1997. Les mosasaures (Squamata) du Crétecé Supérieur du bassin Basco-Cantabrique. Geobios 20:19-26.

Bardet, N., Fernández, M., García-Ramos, X.C. Suberbiola, X.P., Piñuela. L., Ruiz-Omeñaca, J.I., and Vincent, P. 2008. A juvenile plesiosaur from the Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) of Asturias, Spain. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(1): 258-263.

Bardet, N., P. Godefroit and J. Sciau, 1999. A new elasmosaurid plesiosaur from the lower Jurassic of southern France. Palaeontology 42(5):927-952, 4 pls.

Bardet, N. and J.W.M. Jagt. 1996. Mosasaurus hoffmani, le "Grand animal fossile des Carrieres de Maestricht": deux sicles d’histoire, Bulletin de Museum d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, 4th Series, 18, Section C, No. 4, pp. 569-593. (in French, with a nice series of plates of the first discovered mosasaur)

Bardet, N., J.W.M. Jagt, M.M.M. Kuypers, and R. W. Dortangs. 1998. Shark tooth marks on a vertebra of the mosasaur Plioplatecarpus marshi from the Late Maastrichtian of Belgium. Publicaties van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 41(1): 52-55.

Bardet, N. and X.P. Suberbiola. 2001. The basal mosasaurid Halisaurus sternbergii from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas (North America): a review of the Uppsala type specimen. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science 332:395-402.<NB>

Bardet N. and X.P. Suberbiola. 2002.  Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous Phosphates of Jordan: palaeobiogeographical implications Geodiversitas 24(4):831-839.

Bardet N., X.P. Suberbiola, M. Iarochene, F. Bouyahyaoui, B. Bouya, and M. Amaghzaz. 2004. Mosasaurus beaugei Arambourg, 1952 (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco.  Geobios (in press)

Bardet N., X. P. Suberbiola, M. Iarochene, F. Bouyahyaoui, B. Bouya, and M. Amaghzaz. 2005. A new species of Halisaurus from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco, and the phylogenetical relationships of the Halisaurinae (Squamata: Mosasauridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143: 447-472.

Bardet N.,  X.P. Suberbiola and N-E Jalil. 2003. A new polycotylid plesiosaur from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) of Morocco. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 2(5):307-315. 

Bardet N.,  X.P. Suberbiola and N-E Jalil. 2003. A new mosasauroid (Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) of Morocco. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2(8):607-616.

Bardet, N.,  Pereda Suberbiola,  X., Iarochène, M.,  Amalik M., and Bouya, B. 2005. Durophagous Mosasauridae (Squamata) from the Upper Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco, with description of a new species of Globidens. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw, 84(3), p. 167-176.

Bardet, N., Pereda Suberbiola, X., Schulp, A.S., and Bouya B. 2008. New material of Carinodens (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) phosphates of Morocco. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 29-36.

Bardet, N., Pereda Suberboila, X., Corral, J.-C., Baceta, J.I., Torres, J.Á., Botanz, B. and Martin, G. 2012. A skull fragment of the mosasaurid Prognathodon cf. sectorius from the Late Cretaceous of Navarre (Basque-Cantabrian region). in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):117-121.

Bardet, N. and C. Tunoglu, 2002. The first mosasaur (Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous of Turkey. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(3):712-715. <NB>

Baur, G. 1890. On the characters and systematic position of the large sea-lizards, Mosasauridae. Science 16(405):262.

Baur, G., 1890. A review of the charges against the Paleontological Department of the U. S. Geological Survey, and of the defence made by Prof. O. C. Marsh.  American Naturalist 24(279):298-304. (Mar., 1890 issue, published April 3, 1890)

Baur, G., 1892. On the morphology of the skull of the Mosasauridae, Journal of Morphology, 7(1):1-22, 2 plates.

Baur, G., 1895. Cope on the temporal part of the skull, and on the systematic position of the Mosasauridae. American Naturalist 29(347):999-1002.

Baur, G. 1896. Ueber die Morphologie des Unterkiefers der Reptilien. Anatomischer Anzeiger 11:410-415.

Baur, G. 1896. Bemerkungen über die Phylogenie der Schildkröten. Anatomischer Anzeiger 12:561-570.

Beamon, J.C. 1999. Depositional environment and fossil biota of a thin clastic unit of the Kiowa Formation, Lower Cretaceous (Albian), McPherson County, Kansas. Unpublished MS Thesis, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS, 97 p.

Beard, J.C., 1901. Something about ancient American Saurians. Scientific American. 85:267. (issue of October 26)

Beard, J.C. 1908. Some Ancient American Giants. The Outing Magazine 51:739-744 (Oct. 1907-Mar. 1908).

Beecher, C.E. 1900. On a large slab of Uintacrinus from Kansas. American Journal Science 9(52):267-268, 2 pl. (Specimen at Yale University, collected by H.T. Martin)

Bell, A. and Everhart, M.J. 2009. A new specimen of Parahesperornis (Aves: Hesperornithiformes) from the Smoky Hill Chalk (Early Campanian) of western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 112(1/2):7-14.

Bell , A. and Everhart, M.J. 2011. Remains of small ornithurine birds from a Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) microsite in Russell County , north-central Kansas . Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 114(1-2):115-123.

Bell, B.A., P.A.  Murry and L. W. Osten. 1982. Coniasaurus Owen, 1850 from North America. Journal of Paleontology 56(2):520-524.

Bell, G.L., Jr. 1985. Vertebrate faunal zones in the Upper Cretaceous of west central Alabama. Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society American 17(2):80.

Bell, G.L., Jr. 1993, A phylogenetic revision of Mosasauroidea, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 293 pages.

Bell, G.L., Jr. 1994. A phylogenetic revision of mosasauridae and related taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14(suppl. to 3):17A.

Bell, G.L., Jr. 1995. Middle Turonian (Cretaceous) mosasauroids from Big Bend National Park, Texas, In Santucci V. L. and McClelland, L., eds., National Park Service Paleontological Research; U. S. Department of the Interior Technical Report NPS/NRPO/NRTR-95/16, p. 34-39.

Bell, G.L. Jr. 1997. Part IV:   Mosasauridae - Introduction. pp. 281-292 In Callaway J. M. and E. L Nicholls, (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles, Academic Press, 501 pages.

Bell, G.L. Jr. 1997. A phylogenetic revision of North American and Adriatic Mosasauroidea. pp. 293-332 In Callaway J. M. and E. L Nicholls, (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles, Academic Press, 501 pages.

Bell, G.L. Jr., and J. E. Martin. 1995. Direct evidence of aggressive intraspecific competition in Mosasaurus conodon (Mosasauridae: Squamata). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15(suppl. to 3):18A.

Bell, G.L. Jr., J. E. Martin, D. C. Parris and B. S. Grandstaff. 1994. Mosasaurus dekayi in the upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) marine deposits of South Dakota and New Jersey. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14(suppl. to 3):17A.

Bell, G.L. Jr. and M. J. Polcyn, 1995. A new basal mosasauroid from the Arcadia Park Member of the Eagle Ford Shale (Late Middle Turonian) near Dallas, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15(suppl. to 3):18A.

Bell, G.L. Jr. and M. J. Polcyn, 1996. Distribution of the lizard, Coniasaurus, in the western interior Cretaceous seaway and its paleoecological implications. GSA RM Sect. Ann. Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, 28(4):2.

Bell, G.L. Jr. and M. J. Polcyn. 2004. Polyphyly of Mosasauridae: The growing body of evidence. Abstract book and field guide of the First Mosasaur Meeting, Schulp, A. S. and John W. M. Jagt (eds.), Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, the Netherlands, pp. 15 (Abstract).

Bell, G.L. Jr. and Polcyn, M.J. 2005. Dallasaurus turneri, a new primitive mosasauroid from the Middle Turonian of Texas and comments on the phylogeny of Mosasauridae (Squamata). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw, 84(3), p. 177-194.

Bell, G.L. Jr., J. F. Sawyer and J. E. Martin, 1996. New records of vertebrate occurrences in Carlile Shale (Turonian) of southwestern South Dakota. GSA RM Sect. Ann. Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, 28(4):2.

Bell, G.L. Jr., and M. A. Sheldon, 1986. Description of a very young mosasaur from Greene County, Alabama, Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, pages 76-82.

Bell, G.L. Jr. and A. M. Sheldon. 2004. A gravid mosasaur (Plioplatecarpus) from South Dakota. Abstract book and field guide of the First Mosasaur Meeting, Schulp, A. S. and John W. M. Jagt (eds.), Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, the Netherlands, pp. 16 (Abstract).

Bell, G.L. Jr., M. A. Sheldon, J. P. Lamb and J. E. Martin, 1996. The first direct evidence of live birth in Mosasauridae (Squamata): Exceptional preservation in Cretaceous Pierre Shale of South Dakota. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(suppl. to 3):21A.

Bell, G.L. Jr., and J. P. VonLoh. 1998. New records of Turonian mosasauroids from the western United States. Fossil vertebrates of the Niobrara Formation in South Dakota, Dakoterra 5:15-28.

Bennett, S.C. 1987. New evidence on the tail of pterosaur Pteranodon (Archosauria: Pterosauria).  3:12-17. In Currie, P. M. and E. H. Koster (eds.), Fourth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Occasional Paper of the Tyrrell Museum Palaeontology

Bennett, S.C. 1992. Sexual dimorphism of Pteranodon and other pterosaurs, with comments on cranial crests. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12 p. 422-434.

Bennett, S.C. 1993. The ontogeny of Pteranodon and other pterosaurs. Paleobiology 19(1):92-106.

Bennett, S.C. 1994. Taxonomy and systematics of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea). Occasional Papers of the Natural. History Museum,  University of Kansas. 169:1-70.

Bennett , S.C.  1997. Terrestrial locomotion of pterosaurs: a reconstruction based on Pteraichnus trackways. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:104-113.

Bennett , S.C. 1997. The arboreal leaping theory of the origin of pterosaur flight. Historical Biology, 12:265-290.

Bennett, S.C. 2000. Inferring Stratigraphic Position of Fossil Vertebrates from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey, Current Research in Earth Sciences, Bulletin 244, part 1.  Photos are here

Bennett, S. C. 2000. Pterosaur flight: the role of actinofibrils in wing function. Historical Biology, 14:255-284.

Bennett, S.C. 2000. New information on the skeletons of Nyctosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(Supplement to Number 3):29A.

Bennett, S.C.  2001. The osteology and functional morphology of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon. Part I. General description of osteology. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, 260:1-112.

Bennett, S.C. 2001. The osteology and functional morphology of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon. Part II. Functional morphology. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, 260:113-153.

Bennett, S.C. 2002. Soft tissue preservation of the cranial crest of the pterosaur Germanodactylus from Solnhofen. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(1):43-48. <SCB>

Bennett, S.C. 2003. A survey of pathologies of large pterydactyloid pterosaurs. Palaeontology, 46(1):185-198.

Bennett, S.C. 2003. New crested specimens of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Nyctosaurus. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 77:61-75. SEE PHOTOS HERE

Bennett , S.C.  2003. Morphological evolution of the pectoral girdle of pterosaurs: Myology and function. Pp. 191-215 in Buffetaut, E. and Mazin, J.-M. (eds.), Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217. Geological Society of London .

Bennett , S.C. 2007. Articulation and function of the pteroid bone of pterosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27:881-891.

Bernard, A., Lécuyer, C., Vincent, P., Amiot, R., Bardet, N., Buffetaut, E., Cuny, G., Fourel, F., Martineau, F., Mazin, J-M. and Prieur, A. 2010. Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles. Science 328:1379-1382.

Bird, R. T. 1985. Bones for Barnum Brown: Adventures of a dinosaur hunter. Texas Christian University Press, Fort Worth, TX, 225 pp. (Gastroliths)

Bonner, O. W., 1964. An osteological study of Nyctosaurus and Trinacromerum with a description of a new species of Nyctosaurus, Unpub. Masters Thesis, Fort Hays State University, 63 pages.

Borderip, W.J. 1848. Sea dragons, pp. 339-350 in Zoological Recreations. Henry Colburn, London , (384 pp.).

Brinkman, D. B., Z. Xijin, and E. L. Nicholls, 1992. A primitive ichthyosaur from the lower Triassic of British Columbia, Canada. Palaeontology 35(2):465-474.

Brinkman, D., Hart, M., Jamniczky, H., and Colbert, M. 2006. Nicholisemys baieri gen. et sp. nov, a primitive chelonioid turtle from the late Campanian of North America. Paludicola 5(4):111-124.

Brower, J.C. 1983. The aerodynamics of Pteranodon and Nyctosaurus, two large pterosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 3(2):84-124.

Bryan, J. R., 1992. Origin and paleoecology of Maastrichtian rockground and chalk facies in south central Alabama. Palaios 7(1):67-76.

Bryant, L. J. 1983. Hesperornis in Alaska. PaleoBios 40:1-8.

Brower, J. C. 1983. The aerodynamics of Pteranodon and Nyctosaurus, two large pterosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 3(2):84-124.

Brown, B., 1904. Stomach stones and the food of plesiosaurs. Science, 20(501):184-185.

Brown, B., 1907. Gastroliths, Science, (N. S.) 25(636):392.

Brown, B., 1913. A new plesiosaur, Leurospondylus, from the Edmonton Cretaceous of Alberta. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 32, Art. XL, pp. 605-615.

Brown, B. 1943. Flying reptiles. Natural History. 52:104-111.

Brown, G.W. 1978. Preliminary report on an articulated specimen of Pteranodon (Nyctosaurus) gracilis (abstr.). Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Proceedings  88:39.

Brown, G.W. 1986. Reassessment of Nyctosaurus; new wings for an old pterosaur (abstr.). Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Proceedings 96:47

Brown, D. S. and A. R. I. Cruickshank, 1994. The skull of the Callovan plesiosaur Cryptoclidus eurymerus and the Sauropterygian cheek. Palaeontology, 37(4):941-953.

Bryan, J. R., D. L. Frederick, D. R. Schwimmer, and W. G. Siese 1991. First dinosaur record from Tennessee: A Campanian hadrosaur. Journal of Paleontology. 65:696-697. (remains from marine sediments).

Buchanan, R. C. (ed.), 1984. Kansas geology: An introduction to landscapes, rocks, minerals and fossils. University Press of Kansas. 208 pp.

Buchanan, R. C. and J. R. McCauley, 1987. Roadside Kansas; A traveler's guide to its geology and landmarks. University Press of Kansas. 365 pp.

Buchy, M-C, 2004. Plesiosaurs (Reptilia-Sauropterygia) from the Braunjura ß (Middle Jurassic; late Aalenian) of southern Germany. Carolinea 62: 51-62

Buchy, M-C, Frey, E., Stinnesbeck, W. Lopez-Oliva, J. G. 2003. First occurrence of a gigantic pliosaurid plesiosaur in the late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Mexico.  Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 174(3):271-278.

Buchy, M-C, F. Métayer and E. Frey. 2005. Osteology of Manemergus anguirostris n. gen et sp., a new plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. Palaeontographica 272 (5-6): 97-120.

Buchy, M.-C., Smith, K.T., Frey, E., Stinnesbeck, W., González González, A.H., Ifrim, C., López-Oliva, J.G. and Porras-Muzquiz, H. 2005. Annotated catalogue of marine squamates (Reptilia) from the Upper Cretaceous of northeastern Mexico. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw, 84(3), p. 195-206.

Buchy, M-C, P. Taugourdeau and P. Janvier. 2004. Stomach contents of a lower Triassic ichthyosaur from Spitsbergen. Oryctos 5: 47-55.

Buckland, W. 1829. On the discovery of a new species of Pterodactyle in the Lias at Lyme Regis. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, Series 2, 3:217-222.

Buckland, W., 1830. Letter from the Rev. Dr. W. Buckland, F. R. S. &c. Professor of Mineralology and Geology in the University of Oxford, on the discovery of coprolites in North America. Philosophical Magazine, New Series,  7(41):321-323, 1 text fig. (for May; see DeKay 1830)

Buffetaute, E. and Bardet, N. 2012. The mosasaurid (Squamata) Prognathodon in the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of the Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, northwestern France). in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):111-115.

Bühler, P., L. D. Martin and L. M. Witmer., 1988. Cranial kinesis in the Late Cretaceous birds Hesperornis and Parahesperornis. Auk 105 p. 111-122.

Bukowski, F., 1983. Halisaurus platyspondylus -- The third reported occurrence of this mosasaur in New Jersey, The Mosasaur, 1:119-121.

Bullard, T.S. and Caldwell, M.W. 2010. Redescription and rediagnosis of the tylosaurine mosasaur Hainosaurus pembinensis Nicholls, 1988, as Tylosaurus pembinensis (Nicholls). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(2):416-426.

Burnell, A., Collins, S. and Young, B.A. 2012. Vertebral morphometrics in Varanus. in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):151-158.

Burnell, A., Collins, S. and Young, B.A. 2012. The postpulmonary septum of Varanus salvator and its implication for Mosasaurian ventilation and physiology. in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):159-169.

Burnham, D. A., 1991. A new mosasaur from the Upper Demopolis Formation of Sumter County, Alabama, Masters Thesis, University of New Orleans, 63 pages.

Burnham, D. A., 1992. A new species of Plioplatecarpus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale Formation (Campanian) of Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12(suppl. to 3):20A.

Caldwell, M. W., 1996. Ontogeny and phylogeny of the mesopodial skeleton in mosasauroid reptiles. Zoological  Journal of the Linnean Society 116:407-436, 15 fig.

Caldwell, M. W., 1997. Limb osteology and ossification patterns in Cryptoclidus (Reptilia: Plesiosauroidea) with a review of sauropterygian limbs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17(2):295-307.

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Cope, E. D. 1870. Observations on the Reptilia of the Triassic formations of the Atlantic regions of the United States. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 11(84):444-446. (includes the description of Pneumatoarthrus peloreus, senior synonym of Archelon, Wieland 1896)

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Cope, E. D. 1870. Synopsis of the extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America. Transactions American Philosophical Society, (n. s.) 14:1-252 + i-viii, 55 figs., 14 pl. (Part I only.)

Cope, E. D. 1870. Remarks on fossil reptiles from the Cretaceous of Kansas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, p. 132. (Polycotylus latipinnis)

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Cope, E. D. 1871. On the homologies of some of the cranial bones of the reptilia, and on the systematic arrangement of the class. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 19th meeting, Troy, NY, 1870: 194-247.

Cope, E. D., 1871. On some species of Pythonomorpha from the Cretaceous beds of Kansas and New Mexico. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 11(85):574-584.

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Cope, E. D., 1872. Sketch of an expedition in the valley of the Smoky Hill River in Kansas. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12(87):174-176. (for Oct. 20, 1871 meeting)

Cope, E. D., 1872. On a new Testudinate from the chalk of Kansas. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12(88):308-310.

Cope, E. D., 1872. On two new Ornithosaurians from Kansas. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12(88):420-422.

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Cope, E. D., 1872. On Kansas vertebrate fossils. American Journal of Science, Series  3, 3(13):65.

Cope, E. D., 1872. On the geology and paleontology of the Cretaceous strata of Kansas. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana and Portions of the Adjacent Territories, Part III - Paleontology, pp. 318-349.

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Cope, E. D.,1873. On the existence of Dinosauria in the transition beds of Wyoming. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12(89):481-483.

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Cope, E. D., 1873. On two new species of Saurodontidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 25:337-339. (naming of Portheus lestrio (Xiphactinus audax),  Portheus gladius (Protosphyraena gladius) and Daptinus (Saurodon leanus).

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Cope, E. D., 1877. The sea serpents of the Cretaceous period. American Naturalist 11(5):311. (for May meeting)

Cope, E. D., 1877. The discovery of Laelaps in Montana, American Naturalist, 11:311.

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Cope, E. D. 1887. The sea-saurians of the Fox Hills Cretaceous. American Naturalist 21(6):563-566.

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Cope, E. D. 1894. On the structure of the skull in the plesiosaurian Reptilia, and on two new species from the Upper Cretaceous. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23(144):109-113.

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Moodie, R. L. 1908, The relationship of the turtles and plesiosaurs, Kansas University Science Bulletin, 4(15):319-32.

Moodie, R. L. 1910. An armored dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Wyoming. Kansas University Science Bulletin 5(14):257-273, 4 pl. (Re: Niobrarasaurus)

Moodie, R. L. 1911, An embryonic plesiosaurian propodial, Kansas Academy Science, Transactions  23:95-101, 9 figs, 1 pl.

Moodie, R. L. 1912. The "stomach stones" of reptiles. Science 35(897):377-378.

Moodie, R. L. 1916. The growth of bone in Cretaceous times. Science (n. s.) 43(1097):35-36.

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Morton, S. G. 1842. Description of some new species of organic remains fo the Cretaceous group of the United States; with a tabular view of the fossils hitherto discovered in this formation.  Journal Academy Natural Sciences of   Philadelphia, Series  1, 8(pt. 2):207-227, pls. 10 and 11. (includes Ptychodus mortoni from Alabama, Mosasaurus, Lamna (Cretoxyrhina) mantelliSaurodon and Saurocephalus as reptiles (?!?))

Motani, R. 1996. Redescription of the dental features of an Early Triassic ichthyosaur, Utatsusaurus hataii. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(3):396-402.

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Motani, R. 1997. Redescription of the dentition of Grippia longirostris (Ichthyosauria) with a comparison with Utatsusaurus hataii. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:39-44.

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Motani, R. 1999. On the evolution and homologies of ichthyopterygian forefins. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(1):28-41.

Motani, R. 1999. Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(4):472-495.

Motani, R. 1999. The skull and taxonomy of Mixosaurus (Ichthyopterygia). Journal of Paleontology 73:917-928.

Motani, R. 2000. Skull of Grippia longirostris: no contradiction with a diapsid affinity for the Ichthyopterygia. Palaeontology 43:1-14.

Motani, R. 2000. Is Omphalosaurus ichthyopterygian? --a phylogenetic perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20:295-301.

Motani, R. 2000. Rulers of the Jurassic seas. Science American 283(6):52-59.

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Motani, R. 2010. Warm-blooded sea dragons? Science (Perspectives) 328:1361-1362.

Motani, R., M. Manabe, and Z.-M. Dong.,  The status of Himalayasaurus tibetensis (Ichthyopterygia). Paludicola 2:174-181.

Motani, R., N. Minoura and T. Ando., 1998. Ichthyosaurian relationships illuminated by new primitive skeletons from Japan. Nature 393:255-257.

Motani, R., B. Rothschild, and W. Wahl, Jr. 1999. Large eyeballs in diving ichthyosaurs. Nature. 402:747.

Motani, R., and H. You. 1998. Taxonomy and limb ontogeny of Chaohusaurus geishanensis (Ichthyosauria), with a note on the allometric
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Motani, R. and H. You. 1998. The forefin of Chensaurus chaoxianensis (Ichthyosauria) shows delayed mesopodial ossification. Journal of Paleontology 72:133-136.

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Mudge, B. F. 1873. Recent discoveries of fossil footprints in Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 2:71-74.

Mudge, B. F. 1877. Notes on the Tertiary and Cretaceous periods of Kansas. pp. 277-294, in Part I (Geology) of the Ninth Annual Report, U. S. Geological and Geog. Survey Territories (Hayden), for 1875, 827 p.

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Mudge, B. F. 1877. Flesh fossilization an impossibility. Western Review of Science and Industry 1(8):484-485.

Mudge, B. F. 1877. Fossilization of flesh. Western Review of Science and Industry 1(10):625-626.

Mudge, B. F. 1877. Fossil leaves in Kansas. Western Review of Science and Industry 1(10):654-656.

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Mulder, E. W. A. and H. Mai. 1999. The oldest tylosaurine mosasaur (Reptilia, Lacertilia) from the Late Cretaceous of Belgium: Hermann von Meyer (1860) revisited, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 78:207-213.

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Nicholls, E. L., 1988. The first record of the mosasaur Hainosaurus (Reptilia: Lacertilia) from North America, Canadian Journal of Earth Science 25, 1564-1570.

Nicholls, E. L., 1988. New material of Toxochelys latiremis Cope, and a revision of the genus Toxochelys (Testudines, Chelonioidea). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(2):181-187.

Nicholls, E. L., 1992. Note on the occurrence of the marine turtle Desmatochelys (Reptilia: Chelonioidea) from the Upper Cretaceous of Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 29:377-380.

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Nicholls, E. L. and M. Manabe, 2001. A new genus of ichthyosaur from the Late Triassic  Pardonet Formation of British Columbia: bridging the Triassic-Jurassic gap. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 38:983-1002.

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O'Keefe, F. R. 2001. A cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia). Acta Zool. Fennica 213:1-63. <FRO>

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O'Keefe, F.R.. 2002. The evolution of plesiosaur and pliosaur morphotypes in the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia). Paleobiology 28(1):101-112. <FRO>

O'Keefe, F.R. 2004. On the cranial anatomy of the polycotylid plesiosaurs, including new material of Polycotylus latipinnis Cope, from Alabama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):326-340.

O'Keefe, F.R. 2004. Preliminary description and phylogenetic position of a new plesiosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Toarcian of Holzmaden, Germany. Journal of Paleontology 78(5):973-988.

O'Keefe, F.R. 2008. Cranial anatomy and taxonomy of Dolichorhynchops bonneri new combination, a polycotylid plesiosaur from the Pierre Shale of Wyoming and South Dakota. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3): 664-676.

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O'Keefe, F.R. and Hiller, N. 2006. Morphologic and ontogenetic patterns in elasmosaur neck length, with comments on the taxonomic utility of neck length variables. Paludicola 5(4):206-229.

O’Keefe, F.R. and Street, H. P. 2009. Osteology of the cryptocleidoid plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with comments on the taxonomic status of Cimoliasauridae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(1):48-57.

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Osborn, H.F., 1898. Models of Extinct Vertebrates. Science, 7(182):841-845.

Osborn, H.F. 1899. A complete mosasaur skeleton, osseous and cartilaginous. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History 1(4):167-188.

Osborn, H.F., 1900. Intercentra and hypapophyses in the cervical region of mosasaurs, lizards and Sphenodon. American Naturalist 34(397):1-7.

Osborn, H.F., 1923. The extinct giant rhinoceros Baluchitherium of western and central Asia. Natural History 23(3):208-228.

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Owen, R., 1851, Monograph on The fossil reptilia of the Cretaceous formations, Palaeontographical Society, pp. 1-118.  (I only have pages 29-45 dealing with mosasaurs)

Owen, R. 1859. Note on some remains of Polyptychodon from Dorking. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 16:262-263 (abstract).

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Owen, R., 1862. Monograph on the fossil reptilia from the Kimmeridge Clay.  Pliosaurus grandis. Mon. Palæont. Society London pp. 27-28, 1 pl. (The plate is a huge drawing of a single tooth)

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Parris, D. C., and J. Echols. 1992. The fossil bird Ichthyornis in the Cretaceous of Texas. Texas Journal of Science 44:201-212.

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Pieters, F.J.M., Rompen, P.G.W., Jagt, J.W.M. and Bardet, N. 2012. A new look at Faujas De Saint-Fond’s fantastic story on the provenance and acquisition of the type specimen of Mosasaurus hoffmanni Mantell, 1829. in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(1):55-65.

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Polcyn, M. J. and G. L. Bell, Jr. 2005. Russellosaurus coheni n. gen. n. sp., a 92 million-year-old mosasaur from Texas (USA), and the definition of the parafamily Russellosaurina.  Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw, 84(3), p. 321-333.

Polcyn, M.J., Bell, G.L., Jr., Shimada, K. and Everhart, M.J. 2008. The oldest North American mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas and Texas with comments on the radiation of major mosasaur clades. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 137-155.

Polcyn, M.J. and Everhart, M.J. 2008. Description and phylogenetic analysis of a new species of Selmasaurus (Mosasauridae: Plioplatecarpinae) from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 13-28.

Polcyn, M.J. and Lamb, J. 2012. The snout of Halisaurus platyspondylus MARSH 1869 : phylogenetic and functional implications. in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):137-143.

Polcyn, M.J., Lindgren, J., Bardet, N., Cornelissen, D., Verding, L. and Schulp, A.S. 2012. Description of new specimens of Halisaurus arambourgi Bardet&Pereda Suberbiola, 2005 and the relationships of Halisaurinae. in Bardet, N. (ed.), Troisième congrès sur les Mosasaures, MNHN, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183(2):123-136.

Polcyn, M. J., E. Tchernov and L. L. Jacobs., 1999. The Cretaceous biogeography of the eastern Mediterranean with a description of a new basal mosasauroid from 'Ein Yabrud, Isreal.  Proceedings 2nd Gondwanan Dinosaur Symp. 15:259-290.

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Williston, S.W. 1900. Cretaceous fishes [of Kansas]. Selachians and Pycnodonts. University Geological Survey Kansas VI, pp. 237-256, with pls

Williston, S.W. 1901. A new turtle from the Kansas Cretaceous. Kansas Academy Science, Transactions 17:195-199.

Williston, S.W. 1902. Restoration of Dolichorhynchops osborni, a new Cretaceous plesiosaur, Kansas University Science Bulletin, 1(9):241-244, 1 plate.

Williston, S. W. 1902. Notes on some new or little-known extinct reptiles, Kansas University Science Bulletin, 1(9):247-254, 2 plates.

Williston, S.W. 1902. On certain homoplastic characters in aquatic air-breathing vertebrates, Kansas University Science Bulletin, 1(9):259-266.

Williston, S.W. 1902. Winged reptiles. Popular Science Monthly LX 314-322, 2 figs.

Williston, S.W. 1902. On the skeleton of Nyctodactylus, with restoration. American Journal of Anatomy. 1:297-305.

Williston, S.W. 1902. On the cranial anatomy of plesiosaurs, American Journal of Anatomy 1:518

Williston, S.W. 1902. On the hind limb of Protostega. American Journal of Science, Series 4, 13(76):276-278, 1 fig.

Williston, S.W. 1902. On the skull of Nyctodactylus, an Upper Cretaceous pterodactyl. Journal of Geology X 520-531, 2 pls.

Williston, S.W. 1902. Review of Seeley's Dragons of the Air. Science 15(367):67-68.

Williston, S.W. 1903. North American plesiosaurs, Field Columbian Museum, Pub. 73, Geological Series, 2(1):1-79, 29 plates.

Williston, S.W. 1903. On the structure of the plesiosaurian skull. Science 17(442):980.

Williston, S.W. 1903. On the osteology of Nyctosaurus (Nyctodactylus), with notes on American pterosaurs. Field Museum Publications (Geological Series ) 2(3):125-163, 2 figs., pls. XL-XLIV.

Williston, S.W. 1904. The stomach stones of the plesiosaurs. Science (new series) 22:565.

Williston, S.W. 1904. The relationships and habits of the mosasaurs, Journal of Geology, 12(4):43-51.

Williston, S.W. 1904.  The fingers of pterodactyls. Geology Magazine, Series 5, 1(2): 5:59-60.

Williston, S.W. 1905. A new armored dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Wyoming. Science. New Series 22(564):503-504.

Williston, S.W. 1906. North American plesiosaurs: Elasmosaurus, Cimoliasaurus, and Polycotylus, American Journal of Science Series  4, 21(123):221-234, 4 pl.

Williston, S.W. 1907. The skull of Brachauchenius, with special observations on the relationships of the plesiosaurs. United States National Museum Proceedings 32:477-489. pls. 34-37.

Williston, S.W. 1908. The evolution and distribution of the plesiosaurs. Science 27(697):726-727.

Williston, S.W. 1908. North American plesiosaurs: Trinacromerum. Journal of Geology 16:715-735. figs. 1-15.

Williston, S.W. 1910. A mounted skeleton of Platecarpus. Journal of Geology 18(6):537-541, 1 fig.

Williston, S.W. 1911 The wing-finger of pterodactyls, with restoration of Nyctosaurus. Journal of Geology. 19:696–705.

Williston, S.W. 1912, A review of G. B. Eaton's "Osteology of Pteranodon". Journal of Geology. 20:288.

Williston, S.W. 1914. Water reptiles of the past and present. Chicago University Press. 251 pp. (Free, downloadable .pdf version here)

Williston, S.W. 1918. The progress of science since the foundation of the Kansas Academy of Science. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 29:53-61.

Williston, S.W. 1918. The evolution of vertebrae. Contributions from the Walker Museum 2(4):75-84.

Williston, S.W. 1918. The osteology of some American Permian vertebrates III. Contributions from the Walker Museum 2(4):87-112, pl. III-IV.

Williston, S.W. 1925. The osteology of the reptiles. Arranged and edited by William King Gregory. Cambridge, Mass.. xiii + 298 pp., 191 figs.

Williston, S.W. and Case, E.C. 1892. Kansas mosasaurs - Part I: Clidastes.  Kansas University Quarterly 1:15-32, Pl. II-VI.

Williston, S.W. and R.L. Moodie. 1913. New plesiosaurian genus from the Cretaceous of Nebraska. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 24: 120-121. (Abstract reporting Ogmodirus martini - note original spelling)

Williston, S.W. and R.L. Moodie. 1917. Ogmodirus martinii, a new plesiosaur from the Cretaceous of Kansas. Kansas University Science Bulletin 10:61-73, figs. 1-3., plates 1-5. (see also Moodie, 1916)

Wilson, G., Schiøler, P., Hiller, N. and Jones, C.M. 2005. Age and provenance of Cretaceous marine reptiles from the South Island and Chatham Islands, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 48: 377-387. 

Wiman, C.J. 1920. Some reptiles from the Niobrara group in Kansas. Bulletin of the Geological Institute of Upsala 18:9-18, 9 figs., pls. II-IV.

Winkler, T. C. 1873. Le Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus Conyb. Arch. Mus. Teyler 3:219-233, figs. 1-10, pl. VI.

Witton, M.P. 2010. Pteranodon and beyond: the history of giant pterosaurs from 1870 onwards. pp. 313-323 in Moody, R.T.J., Buffetaut, E., Naish, D. and Martill, D.M. (eds.), Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Saurians: A Historical Perspective. Geological Society, London , Special Publications, 343.

Witton, M.P. and Habib, M.B. 2010. On the size and flight diversity of giant pterosaurs, the use of birds as pterosaur analogues and comments on pterosaur flightlessness. PLoS One 5(11):1-18.  

Witton, M. P., and Naish, D. 2008. A reappraisal of Azhdarchid pterosaur functional morphology and paleoecology. PLoS Biology 3(5):1-16.

Woodward, A.S. 1906. Note on some portions of mosasaurian jaws obtained by Mr. G. E. Dibley from the middle chalk of Cuxton , Kent . Proceedings of the Geological Association 19: 185-187. (read 1905)

Wright, K. R. 1985. A new specimen of Globidens alabamaensis from Alabama. Journal Alabama Academy of Science 56(3):102. (Abs.)

Wright, K. R. 1986. A preliminary report on biostratigraphic zonation of the Alabama mosasaurs. Journal Alabama Academy of Science 57(3):146. (Abs.)

Wright, K. R. 1986. On the biostratigraphic distribution of mosasaurs in western and central Alabama. Abstracts, Fourth North American Paleontological Convention, page A51.

Wright, K. R. 1987. The mosasaur Clidastes: new specimens and new problems. Journal Alabama Academy of Science 58(3):99. (Abs.)

Wright, K. R. 1988. The first record of Clidastes liodontus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the eastern United States, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(3):343-345.

Wright, K. R. 1989. On the taxonomic status of Moanasaurus mangahouangae Wiffen (Squamata: Mosasauridae), Journal of Paleontology, 63(1):126-127.

Wright, K. R. and S. W. Shannon. 1988. Selmasaurus russelli, A new plioplatecarpine mosasaur (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from Alabama, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8(1):102-107.

Young, B.A., Boetig, M., Fahey, A., and Lawrence, A. 2008. The diversity of aquatic locomotion in extant varanoid lizards. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 159-167.

Zangerl, R. 1953. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma formation of Alabama, Part IV, the turtles of the family Toxochelyidae. Fieldiana; Geology Memoirs 3(4): 137 - 277.

Zangerl, R. 1980. Patterns of phylogenic differentiation  in the  toxochelyid and chelonid sea turtles.  American Zoologist 20:585-596. 

Zangerl, R. and R. E. Sloan. 1960. A new description of Desmatochelys lowi (Williston). A primitive cheloniid sea turtle from the Cretaceous of South Dakota. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs 14:7-40.